This was true of the empires that arose in Mesopotamia and in ancient Egypt. These civilization no longer relied on subsistence agriculture to support individuals in a society, but instead had a surplus of food allowing for some people to specialize in the development of other occupations and skills. Nomads: Following the Paleo lithic Diet B. Civilizations By now, you should have a good understanding of the types of developments common to most civilizations; for example, agriculture, written language, and the use of metals all contributed to the growth of early civilizations. The map shows you the most commonly defined regions. The ancient Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile River, where the soil was rich and the agricultural opportunities were plentiful.
Also, like the Indo-Europeans, the Bantu independently discovered and developed Iron metallurgy allowing for the dominance for centuries in this region. The Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar, rebuilt Babylon as a showplace of architecture and culture. Egypt had its famous hieroglyphs, many of which still survive today. The pharaohs, as you know, built huge pyramids to house their mummified bodies and earthly treasures. But people also use technology to impact their surroundings. Bantu speakers gradually moved into areas formerly occupied by nomads.
This development was so significant that some people call the latter part of the Neolithic Era the Bronze Age. You should be able to discuss some examples of changes brought about by invention and innovation. During this period, hard stones such as granite were sharpened and formed into farming tools such as hoes and plows. In what ways did the various Paleolithic Societies differ from one another, and how did they change over time? In this way, within a hundred years, the Assyrians had learned to use iron, the very technology the Hittites had used to defeat them. The wild ancestor of maize.
The interesting thing about Sumerian polytheism was that each city-state had its own god that was worshipped only by its people. When we speak of Western civilization, for example, we mean a whole host of countries that have similar characteristics and cultures but that are distinct from one another and, often, compete with one another. Which statements in this chapter seem to be reliable and solidly based on facts, and which ones are more speculative in nature? Interestingly, the Chavin used llamas as their beasts of burden. As described above, specialization of labor is key. More on the Greeks and Romans later. Copper was the first metal used, and other metallurgical techniques developed from there. Young girls were also not educated nearly as well as young boys.
Sumer: The First Major Mesopotamian Civilization Sumerian civilization rose in the southern part of Mesopotamia. In addition, there were a bunch of gods that all the city-states worshipped collectively. The Olmec were an urban society supported by surpluses of corn, beans, and squash. On the whole, male domination was becoming the norm in society. Stay Focused on the Big Picture Organize the zillions of facts from the era covered in this chapter into some big- picture concepts. This enabled farmers to increase the size of their fields dramatically because they no longer had to turn the soil by hand.
Later, as you might guess, it also gave invading forces a way into the land. What are some possible explanations for the different shorelines of the Earth's landmasses 100 million years in the future? Notice that as civilizations developed, they were less subject to natural events causing their demise, but more subject to other civilizations doing so. Paleolithic humans created a way of life that endured for 95% of the time we inhabited the Earth. Humans versus Nature You should be able to name many ways in which civilizations have changed their surroundings to suit their own purposes. What is the significance of the Paleolithic Era in world history? From Sumer to Babylon to Nineveh to Babylon As the Sumerian city-states declined, the city of Akkad, which was north of Sumer, rose to dominate the region.
Hieroglyphics, Geometry, Calendar System, Medicine, Architecture King pharaoh represented as Horus, son of Re; maintained ma'at Hinduism Plumbing systems Indecipherable writing system Bronze metallurgy tools ie. Their king was Sargon the Great This is considered the worlds first empire The Third Dynasty of Ur 2112-2004 B. Think about what makes a civilization a civilization in the first place. Highly disciplined but cruel, the Assyrian army was hated by those it conquered. Though these early, Indo-European empires were short-lived, they ushered in a new age of large state-building that set the stage for classical empires to emerge, such as the Persians, the Hellenistic Empire, and the juggernaut that was the Roman Empire.
Group 2: Slavery laws 5, 17, 204, etc. And by around 1700 B. She is credited with greatly expanding Egyptian trade expeditions. It also involves emotional and psychological issues. Think about how much you can carry in your backpack: That will give you an idea how many possessions they had. Though literature was usually limited to a small, elite portion of the populace, it serves as a guide when understanding ancient cultures. These migrations, usually referred to as the Bantu migrations, continued over the course of the next 2,000 years.
If someone else comes along and drinks from their river or builds a house on their hill, they might begin to think of the newcomers as intruders or invaders, not as neighbors. Caral was the largest of some twenty urban centers that developed at the time. E Yellow River Shang 2000 B. A Paleolithic people still living in the northern fringe of the Kalahari Desert in South Africa. Military increased male status Sources of authority: Authority required to regulate dense pop.
During this time period, those include the development of spoken language, the ability to control and use fire, and the ability to make simple tools out of stone. Climate changes, disease, famine, and natural disasters could endanger or eliminate entire communities. The most famous literary work from ancient Mesopotamia, it tells the story of one man's quest for immortality. First, they demonstrate that the same patterns of development occurred in an entirely different part of the globe, a part that had no contact with the other civilizations discussed in this chapter. Activity: Write Your Name in Hieroglyphics! In what ways did the various Paleolithic Societies differ from one another, and how did they change over time? The important thing to remember about the Aryan conquest of the Indus Valley is the establishment of their religious beliefs on the Indian subcontinent, in particular their belief in reincarnation.