All communication begins with the sender. Since norms and rules vary among people and cultures, relational and cultural contexts are also included in the transaction model in order to help us understand the multiple contexts that influence our communication. The sender is an individual, group, or organization who initiates the communication. Sometimes managers do not give attention due to extreme emotions for example, depression or jubilation. The reason can be preoccupied mind of receiver. Media : It is the medium, passage or route through which encoded message is passed by the sender to the receiver.
Developing a message is known as encoding. In the recent years upward communication is gaining more importance because the subordinates prefer to involve themselves in the decision making and they have started demanding a better working condition. The four basic components are sender or source , message, channel and receiver. Time, in particular, is an important resource in the communication process. The interaction model portrays context as physical and psychological influences that enhance or impede communication.
Theories of describe communication as a creative and dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of information. In this axiological approach, theorists embrace their values and work to reproduce those values in their research and theory development. If Paige whispers, Bill might not hear it. In this process, the receiver interprets the message with her or his sensory skills. Successful communication takes place when the receiver correctly interprets the sender's message.
These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication. The source decides on the message and the most effective method to send it. Communication theory states that communication involves a sender and a receiver or receivers conveying information through a communication channel. Simply, an act of conveying intended information and understanding from one person to another is called as communication. If Bill is distracted by something else and not paying attention, he might miss some of the words and respond inappropriately—or might miss the question completely, necessitating the exchange begin again. For example, broadcasting news of an upcoming event via a written letter might convey the message clearly to one or two individuals but will not be a time or cost effective way to broadcast the message to a large number of people. This model focuses on the sender and message within a communication encounter.
Conversely, people with identities that are dominant or in the majority may rarely, if ever, think about the role their cultural identities play in their communication. In a situation where the message must be delivered to more than a small group of people, written channels are often more effective. If a sender relays a message through an inappropriate channel, its message may not reach the right receivers. The critical factor in measuring the effectiveness of communication is common understanding. This follow up helps to remove hurdles, misunderstanding of instructions given by manager to subordinates. The process of interpreting the message is known as decoding.
The Receiver — There must be a message sent if there is one to be received. Feedback Feedback is the ultimate aspect of communication process. The message is transmitted over a channel that links the sender with the receiver. Increase managerial efficiency: Every individual in the organisation is assigned a job or task. It is through the communication process that the sharing of a common meaning between the sender and the receiver takes place. It can be in the form of voice, audio, text, video or other media. However, the linear model does not explain many other forms of communication including face-to-face conversation.
The sender has some kind of information—a command, request, question, or idea—that he or she wants to present to others. In order to decode the message, the receiver has to be ready to receive the message. It must be selected carefully in order to make the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. The audiences and their frame of mind differ in the environment they are in. Barriers to Effective Communication : Sometimes the message sent by sender does not reach the receiver in the same manner as expected by the sender.
He usually gives feedback to the sender in order to make sure that the message was properly received. Probability: In probability network the individual communicates randomly with other individuals. Noise can occur during any stage of the process. It is the final step of the communication process and establishes that the receiver has received the message in its letter and spirit. Semantic noise can also interfere in communication between people speaking the same language because many words have multiple or unfamiliar meanings. The degree to which the receiver decodes the message depends on his knowledge of the subject matter, experience, trust and relationship with the sender.