Endnotes must be added on a separate Endnotes or Notes page at the end of your essay just before the Works Cited or Bibliography page. All other sources simply appear in the reference list. The examples are intended to get you started with the basics. Endnotes are compiled together at the end of the paper be fore the bibliography. Citing an Entire Web Site It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later.
Here is an example: 1 Mark Reynolds, The Origins of Japanese Folklore New York: Villard Books, 1997 , p. For Endnotes, you must use the same superscript number as in your text at the beginning of each Endnote in your Endnotes list. Formerly, the Latin terms ibid. However, some disciplines, such as law and history, still predominantly utilize footnotes. When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. E-mail including E-mail Interviews Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. The principles are different only by the way in which elements are included in the endnote, so that is everything you should remember.
The Web This Site Only Links to related pages: 1. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. To insert a superscript and add an endnote, use Microsoft Word that has a corresponding function under the References tab in Insert. Endnotes or footnotes may be used to add supplementary bibliographic data or commentary. When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthology , use the abbreviation n.
The notes themselves should be listed by consecutive Arabic numbers that correspond to the notation in the text. Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions. Containers can nest, and commonly do: an electronic journal article at Tufts is usually contained in a journal, and that journal is usually contained in a database. Add a period after the date. Do not indent second and subsequent lines. In general, to avoid interrupting the continuity of the text, footnote numbers are placed at the end of the sentence, clause, or phrase containing the quoted or paraphrased material. An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal For all online scholarly journals, provide the author s name s , the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication.
However, the general rule of thumb is to use a separate page. When you use a footnote to cite a website, list all of the relevant information so that your reader can easily find your source online. For second or later mention of the same work with intervening entries, where previously op. For example, should an author wish to include an interesting fact or comment about one of the statements made in the paper, but that comment is seemingly irrelevant to the argument being presented, they may choose to include that information in a footnote. Put a comma between the volume and issue number.
Then list the title of the course or the school catalog designation for the course in italics. Insert a period outside the parentheses. Content notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere. Article or chapter in a book Le Patourel, John. Several other pieces of research state the same conclusion. In cases where the surname of the author is not known, it is appropriate to list titles alphabetically.
These examples are for commonly found types of materials. Place the cursor where you need an endnote in the text. Review the footnote for accuracy. Here is an example of what that looks like: Shimabukuro, Jake. It should show up after the punctuation mark.
Scientists examined—over several years 1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules. Many students or scholars use footnotes to document sources. After all, research and writing itself take plenty of time.
If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. Also, you might use the Bookmark function in your Web browser in order to return to documents more easily. Web Atomic and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 13 Sept. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author. In addition to this information, provide the title of the database italicized, the medium of publication, and the date of access.
Footnotes and Endnotes: The primary function of a footnote or endnote is to in form the reader of the specific place within a work where a writer has cited text or extracted ideas from an outside source. Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or, better, using a program like Adobe Acrobat, to keep your own copies for future reference. In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentences, hence each entry requires a minimum of three periods, e. The first line of each endnote is indented five spaces; subsequent lines are flush with the left margin.