For example, increasing µ H or µ F represents hand washing or fomite decontamination. Students will synthesize their findings in a summary presentation of at least 10 slides that will be shared with their peers in week 4 day 5, when they will compare and contrast the feedback from their research in a discussion forum. In some cases, the growth was reduced to 0%, while in other occurrences, there was as much as 40% growth on the agar plate. Due to this result, as well as the increasing interest in hand hygiene and decontamination to control a wide range of infectious diseases we focus here on the indirect contact route. A description of 8 sites used for testing in the fomite transmission lab is not readily apparent.
Again there may be redeposition loop in this route. The upper part of the figure models the flow of individual compartments. A really famous example of a vector is a mosquito. Results We first formulate and interpret the basic reproduction number of our model to illustrate the contributions of the two fomite routes mathematically. The equations are presented below. We compare the relative transmission potentials of each fomite route, and finally examine the effect of increasing or decreasing parameter values on the transmission potential for each of the fomite types. In a literature review and subsequent meta analysis, we demonstrate that the outcome currently used to describe virus contamination, positivity rate, is biased by the authors' selected sampling methods.
Students will individually examine the principles useful in studying the etiology and disease prevention and also how intimate sexual contact can promote exchange of microbial pathogens between individuals. Note that scale for graph A is one order of magnitude smaller than graph B. Literally any way you can possibly think of can be used by a pathogen to get you sick. Specific values of virus inactivation on hands and fomites x-axis values of stars in are based on only one study in 1982 which reported that influenza viruses can remain viable on hand for up to a minute and surfaces for up to hours, however we extended the values 2 to 10 times larger or smaller to set the parameter rage for the sensitivity study. How do the bacteria look on the plate as compared to the broth? Isolation of individual colonies: Students will learn about two types of culture growth media and colony morphology.
How does indirect transmission of disease differ from direct transmission? Clearly discusses and presents the following: 1 Malaria cycle and transmission 2 diagnosis 3 pathogenesis 4 immunity 5 control 5 malaria drugs and vaccine development. Pickup Process Individuals touch fomites thereby picking up pathogens at the rate ρ F, the product of the personal touching rate ρ ptr , the fraction of the pathogens on a fomite that are touched ρ fsr assumed to be the ratio of the fingertip area to the total fomite surface area , and the transfer efficiency of pathogens from fomite to hand per touch ρ tfsh. In our analysis we examine 4 fomite types by varying two parameters, λ and ρ ptr, as described in the following section. Therefore the background will be stained and the cell will remain colorless Congo Red is most common 1. I was glad to see the clean silverware which had been washed in dishwasher on high temp setting did not exhibit growth, demonstrating how heat and detergents can limit growth of microorganisms.
Most of them will spell out which pathogens they are effective against. The cover sheet has a properly formatted running head. How could you tell if one of the colonies on your pure plate was a contaminant from the environment and did not come from your original culture? From these results it appears that fomites are a more infectious method of microbial transmission. The cover sheet does not have a properly formatted running head. Two 2 references are utilized for this presentation.
Growth Results for Inoculated Plates. Students will synthesize their findings in a summary presentation of at least 10 slides that will be shared with their peers in week 3 day 5, when they will compare and contrast the feedback from their research in a discussion forum. In this manuscript we classify fomites by parameter values of surface sizes and touching rates; we model fomite types separately as if each has an independent contribution to the basic reproduction number, R 0. Demonstrates adequate writing skills with respect to transitions, clarity of thought, and organization. The model also creates a basis for comparing how we might expect transmission dynamics via fomites to change for infectious agents that have parameter values differing from those we have used to characterize influenza.
Sneezing and coughing can disperse pathogens directly onto surfaces. The agar plates were then inverted, labeled, and placed in a bin for growth for 24-48 hours and subsequent analysis the following laboratory period. Your lab report must be submitted using this official report sheet. The first study in this dissertation examines virus transfer between skin and surfaces, a necessary step in fomite-mediated transmission of viral disease. No primary journal and no secondary references are utilized.
Hence the shedding rate of virus to hands with reference to a type of fomite is αφ H ξ. How could your methods be improved in the future? This is the differential step. Uncertainty analysis found that despite the relatively fast inactivation of influenza virus on hands and surfaces, contact transmission remains a viable transmission route, in part due to the vast volumetric majority 99. Learner Participation University College sees active participation in the course as a means to build an effective learning community within an online environment. Title: Antimicrobial drugs- Antibiotics can kill gram-negative bacteria, but symptoms of fever and low blood pressure can persist.
Students will study the morphology of the growth and count the different colonies. A vector is any organism that carries and transmits an infectious agent into another organism. Not all that shocking when you think about how often men wash their ties? Even in the lab in near-ideal conditions, I would wager an enveloped virus like rabies wouldn't last longer than 3 days outside a host. Experiment, Grammatical tense, Laboratory 913 Words 5 Pages Lab report chemistry matriculation experiment 5 Example chemistry lab report matriculation experiment 4. However, minutes or hours makes it possible, if unlikely.
They will use Durham test tubes to test for the production of carbon-dioxide during fermentation of the carbohydrates fructose, glucose and mannitol. Antibiotic sensitivity: students will use the Kirby-Bauer method to test the sensitivity of Staphylococcus epidermidis to the antibiotics gentamicin, novobiacin and penicillin. Clearly discusses or presents the following information: 1. By assuming that the fomite types are independent of each other, a model that includes all 4 fomites can be evaluated by linearly combining the output of the 4 parameterized models. Students will be evaluated against a criteria outlined in the assignment and discussion forum rubric.