Educational Research, 5 9 , 348-352. The feminization of poverty is the trend by which women represent an increasing proportion of the poor K. These three dimensions often interact to produce a person's place in society, the manner in which people are treated, and their self identify. People migrate from villages to cities because urban centres have institutions of higher status as well as opportunities for jobs. European imperial powers in Africa imposed a caste system based on skin color: all whites were in a higher position or caste than any nonwhite f. Sewage disposal systems in most cities are also basic or primitive, and polluted streams, wells, roadside drains, and other bodies of water increase the risk of infectious disease.
Article shared by Though all the societies permit some amount of mobility for their individual members, no society provides equal chances for all the members to achieve social mobility. The business people are invited to help transfer nonexistent large sums of money out of Nigeria, with the promise of a share of the transferred money. This term is used to describe a phenomenon in which a person moves up, down, or across the social hierarchy. This regularity in social mobility, according to sociologists, is the result of inherited wealth, useful social contacts and education. Following Weber, many sociologists use the term socioeconomic status: a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality -- education, occupation, income â¢ Socioeconomic status. Environmental factors: Geologic … al and climatic phenomenalike earthquakes, flood, draught, tornado, tsunami etc.
There are societies where there is a belief that everyone has their place in society into which they are born, and everyone needs to occupy that place and live in it. Color of skin, beauty, and money are the criteria that determine a person's social position. A closed system emphasises the associative character of the hierarchy. Such changes in occupational structure has also effected the rates of mobility between generations. Trade is porbably the best example of a social factor that influenced the development of writing. Change in attitude of societytowards family planning, dowry, caste system, women's educationetc.
The political parties also educate the people about their rights. This used to be the most assured way to be upwardly mobile, but education has been underfunded for years. Caste discrimination is officially illegal but exists nonetheless. Castes System Castes are hereditary ranks that are usually religiously dictated and tend to be fixed and immobile Schaefer, 2005. Ethnic minorities face tremendous hurdles in seeking and obtaining jobs, as well as remaining a part of the active labour force. There areboth endogenous internal to the society concerned andexogenous external to the society factors influencingsocial change. In fact, social capital is an equally important factor in determining a person's social position.
Social Inequality is a structured and systematic phenomenon that affects people in various social classes throughout their lives. Social stratification can be determined by a number of variables, each of which can cause someone to be advantaged or disadvantaged compared to others in society. A smuggler may be earning more than a clerk but his means of livelihood are not recognized in the society. Filipinos believe in the need for social acceptance and feel that education can provide upward mobility. With the help of these new concessions and provisions, they improve upon their social status.
Individuals are assigned their place in the social structure on the basis of ascriptive criteria like age, race, and gender. Prestige: the respect given by others c. Class System The class system is a social ranking system based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility. Stratification persists because it is backed up by an ideology: cultural beliefs that directly or indirectly justify social stratification e. British Journal of Sociology, 51 2 , 281-298. However, we cannot generalise like Marx and his followers, that the amount of wealth and the nature of economic activity always and invariably decide the nature of social mobility, its range and its rate. Other factors: In addition to above mentioned factorsother elements such as wars, ethnic tensions, competition forresources, trade unionism, banking system, human rights movement,enhanced environmental awareness etc.
The estate system or feudalism required people to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services. Among manual workers, it is virtually ruled out. Likewise, a woman from a very poor background who weds a wealthy businessperson has also moved up the social ladder. Society is responsible for poverty? On the other hand, a closed society, in which there is little social mobility, is not very likely to become a world leader. Indeed, for centuries white men have been the majority when it comes to high social positions because American society perceives them as more valuable than women or minorities.
Migration: Migration also facilitates social mobility. Hence, he is placed lower in the social ladder. As an African-American, Obama's election in 2008 was nothing less than a monumental achievement in a country that has a long history of placing a higher social value on white people than it does on people of color. This study adopted survey research design. Determinants of mobility â¢ Social Mobility: The movement of persons and groups within the stratification system. Some such factors may be briefly examined here.
Housing, too, is costly despite its rudimentary quality, prompting the poor to build basic houses in shantytowns. The good things of life are scarce and individuals must compete, conflict and cooperate with others to gain them. Money and material possessions tend to be perceived as a sign of success and power, but they aren't solely responsible for a person's social position. This is the movement of a person either upwards or downwards on the social ladder. Sending one's children to the best schools is the most important indicator of social position. Children in these societies most often are viewed to inherit the social class of their father.