When there is any change in them, the optimum level of population will also change. How can a country carry such a heavy burden and still make economic progress? Division of labour among the different workers, which is made possible by the increase in population, greatly increases the efficiency and productivity of labour. People live in dirty and unhealthy surroundings in ill-ventilated small houses. In this case if population increases to match the resources then it is a symptom of economic development rather than retardation. However, when the country attains a high degree of economic development, the birth rates start falling. By Lauren Boucher March 10, 2016 A population pyramid, or age structure graph, is a simple graph that conveys the complex social narrative of a population through its shape. Assumptions : This theory is based on the following assumptions: 1.
The ratio of working population to total population remains constant even with the growth of population. The food supply in arithmetical progression is measured on the horizontal axis and the population in geometrical progression on the vertical axis. This is the optimum size. It is nonetheless instructive to make a tentative, back-of-the-envelope calculation of an optimum on the basis of present and foreseeable consumption patterns and technologies. If the population happens to be less than optimum level, it is under-populated and if this is more than optimum level, it is over populated. Optimum population refers to the size of a that produces the best results according to chosen end targets. This is the basis of the optimum theory of population.
Given the stock of natural resources, the technique of production and the stock of capital in a country, there is a definite size of population corresponding to the highest per capita income. Mongolia and Western Sahara, with just 2 people per squarekilomee. This is about the same number of people as existed at the turn of the century. These three stages are explained in the Figure 5. Opening of new colonies: The opening of new colonies like America, Canada, Australia etc provided the necessary land for human habitation.
Answer 2 As of 2018, Israel has the largest Jewish population withover 6,484,000 Jews. At a given technological level, as the number of workers increased, the output per worker might initially rise, for example, as a result of the division of labor. Of course, the recent breakthrough in food production due to Green Revolution has raised the supply of food considerably. Some ethicists including Peter Singer —and a few economists including the Nobelist —have argued, following English philosopher 1748—1832 , that a more appropriate measure of social wellbeing is average wellbeing multiplied by the size of population. It is not an easy task to measure changes in the per capita income. Besides the fact of the population has doubled its size, the population has also become qualitatively different from the one from 1950. The Holdren scenario Holdren, 1991 postulates expansion of the human population to only 10 billion and a reduction of average per-capita energy use by people in industrialized nations from 7.
People realise the advantages of small families and have the knowledge and the means to plan their families. Thus optimum population yields highest quality of life, which means each person has access to adequate food, water, energy and air of highest quality, adequate medical care, recreational facilities and cultural outlets. Rather, the increase in per capita income and population might prove harmful to the economy if the increase in per capita income has been the result of concentration of income in the hands of a few rich. The extent of the deviation is called maladjustment. Country classifications, Demographic economics, Demography 1325 Words 4 Pages Discussions: Wk. The desire to have more children to supplement parental income declines. The curve M is the Malthusian population curve which shows the relation between population growth and increase in food supply.
If the increase in population is followed by the increase in per capita income, the country is under-populated and it can afford to increase its population till it reaches the optimum level. In the beginning, there is under-population and per capita income increases with population growth. The size of population is measured on the horizontal axis 2 and the average product of labour on the vertical axis. Optimum population may be defined as the type of population which when combined with the available resources and the given level of existing technology secure a maximum return per head. Liaqat Ali born in Shimhshal in 1987. On the whole, a fast growing population acts as a drag on economic growth. Abortion, China, Demography 804 Words 3 Pages 122 Persuasive Essay Under population The effect of under population in the world is causing lack of people to replace those who die or retire with inability to continue working.
The Theory of Demographic Transition. See also: ; ; ; ;. The classic example is of Great Britain which imports almost all its food requirements from Holland, Denmark, Belgium and Argentina because it concentrates more on the production of wealth rather than on food products. On the contrary, if the increase in population leads to diminution in per capita income, the country is over- populated and needs a decline in population till the per capita income is maximised. Thus a child becomes an earning member even at the age 5 when he becomes a helping hand to his parents in domestic affairs.
Birth rate, Demography, Economics 1136 Words 4 Pages 1. Medical and health facilities are expanded. Second Stage: In the second stage, the economy enters the phase of economic growth. Effect of Economic Growth on Population Growth: Now let us see the other side. Birth rate, Central Intelligence Agency, Demographic economics 1769 Words 5 Pages The Population Solution Question. But suppose we have underestimated the optimum and it actually is 4 billion? Every country has a fixed land area, and a certain fixed quantity of natural resources like coal, iron ore, timber and good farmland.